Climate Resilient Agriculture through Women Farmers
Through “A Chance for Girls” project villages
Indian agriculture is predominantly a rainfed agriculture under and crops are totally depends on rainfall. The total geographical area of India is 329 million hectares of which 144 million hectares is arable land, of this 94 million hectares fall under dry lands constituting 65% of dryland and rainfed area produce 40% of the total food grains that feeds 40% of the total population. The remaining of 50 million hectares constituting 35% of irrigated areas account for 60% of the crop production. In dry land agriculture, scarcity of water is the main problem along with low and erratic behaviour of rainfall, high evaporative demand and limited water holding capacity of the soil constitute the principle constraint in the crop production in dry land area.
With the realization that climate change is inevitable, it is necessary to mitigate the risks, reduce losses, and enhance resilience and adaptive capacities of agricultural community. Low productivity, fluctuating market and erratic weather events making farming a high-risk gamble, on the other hand, increasing population claims higher food production. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers increased yield in the shorter run but deteriorated the soil health. Also, uncontrolled use of agro-chemicals is not only damaging environment but causing serious health issues among the producers and consumers. Thus, promoting eco-friendly climate resilient agricultural practices which increase the yield sustainably, conserve the natural resources and improve the overall agricultural productivity is the need of time.
- To increase agriculture production so as to enhance food and nutrition security of the people
- To promote low-cost, environment friendly climate resilient agriculture techniques to enhance soil health and sustainable agriculture
- To increase the capacity particularly of women farmers to adapt to climatic variations through locale-specific agro and weather advisories.
- To promote sustainable, efficient and judicious water-use technology
- As far as possible to promote linkage of these villages with the local government programmes, particularly that for water efficiency technologies.
3. Project Period: The proposed project will be implemented from January 2020 to December 2020
4. Project Components:
The following project activities will be implemented in the proposed project villages as per the field condition.
4.1 Soil Health Improvement: Soil, which is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, consists of disintegrated rock with admixture of organic remains and contains primary nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK), secondary nutrients like Sulphur and micronutrients such as Zinc, Boron, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Chlorine, Copper etc. These nutrients should be present in optimum quantities for good agriculture production; but they get depleted over the years due to agricultural production and other factors such as flood, rains, drought etc. Fertilizers have to be administered in optimum quantity for which soil testing is essential for ascertaining its chemical composition and thereby determining optimum use of nutrients in the form of fertilizers. However, in practice, farmers use fertilizers on the basis of tradition or on the advice of fertilizer dealers, which results in use of fertilizers in non-optimal quantities, which is not desirable. Also, it is important to measure the electric conductivity and pH of soil.
4.2 System of Crop Intensification (SCI): The methodology involves a four pronged approach that needs to be done systematically, more in the case of poor soils. It involves – Soil preparation and management, Crop Geometry, Systematic Application of Organic inputs and Micro-nutrient foliar spray and basal applications. Organic farming is a system which is primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (bio fertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly pollution free environment. This involves promotion of agricultural demonstration plots, vermi- compost pits, training farmers on better practices of transplantation, spacing, soil and manure preparation, tillage operations, seed treatment, sowing methods etc.
- Seed treatment: the farmers will be advised and trained in seed treatments of bio fertilizers like, rhizobium and application of PSB culture to the pulses and oilseed crop and azotobacter for paddy crop and fungicidal seed treatment like Trico derma to the groundnut and tomato crop.
- Integrated Nutrient Management (INM): It will be undertaken as per the soil testing reports of identified plots. In INM mostly the compost, vermi-compost, neem cake, green manuring and synthetic fertilizers are given on 50-50 basis to the crops as balanced nutrition so as to maintain the soil fertility of the soil.
- Integrated Pest Management (IPM): It includes the organic and biological formulations like amritpani, dasparni ark, neem ark and also covers trap crops like marigold in tomato, castor in groundnut and soybean. Pheromone traps, bird perches and synthetic pesticides controls the pest and disease of different crops.
- Organic farming Practices: These practices are helpful not only for safe food production at low cost, bit also help in improving soil health, structure and quality. The organic formulations like vermin-compost, compost, jeevaamrut increase the organic content and microbial activity in the soil and also improve the water and nutrient hold capacity of soil. Dashparni-ark neem-ark and vermin-wash help control the pest and diseases of various crops.
4.3 Efficient water management:
Use of micro-irrigation techniques like drip and sprinkler: Micro-irrigation system has potential to save water up to 50% and increase crop productivity of about 30%. These methods of irrigation help to bring more area under irrigation. The project will focus to promote and implement the micro-irrigation techniques.
Ridges and furrow: Ridges and furrow are one of the methods for soil and moisture conservation in dry land condition. In low rainfall situation this method helps to conserve rain water in the field and in case of excess rainfall it helps to drain out excess water from field.
Broad bed furrow: Broad bed furrow system is developed at International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics. This method is mainly use for water conservation in rainfed areas having rainfall of about 700 mm.
Mulching: Mulching with farm bio-products like crop residues, paddy straw, wheat straw, maize straw etc. helps to control weeds, conserve moisture, improve soil fertility and increase crop yield up to 10-15%.
4.4 Multilayer Farming:
It is an intercropping system. The plants/crops grow according to different heights, rooting pattern and different crop duration in same field at the same time. Due to frequent droughts in Maharashtra number of farmers were forced to stop growing certain kinds of crops, and had to resort to purchasing the same. And for purchasing it farmer spent money and sometimes this was very expensive. Also farmers are forcibly compromise on their family’s nutrition and health. In order to deal with this problem of insufficient food for the family and inadequate nutrition in the face of a changing climate, multi-layer farming was introduced. It will help to minimize crop yield loss and this system supply farm produce throughout year and reduce impacts of risks like high intensity of rainfall, soil erosion and landslides. Due to this practice biodiversity which reduce pest and disease is increased.
5. Project area:
The proposed project will be implemented in 2 villages namely Ambelohol and Malinja Budrukh from Gangapur block of Auranganad district. WOTR has worked in these villages through the project “A Change for Girls”. The village wise details are as follows:
The total cost required for 2 villages is EURO 11,101. The component wise budget required is as follows:
|Sr. no||Activities||Total Cost (Rs)||Total Cost (EURO)*|
|1||Soil Health Improvement||236,600||3,033|
|2||Efficient Water Management||100,000||1,282|
|3||Systems for Crop Intensification||167,400||2,146|
|6||Subtotal of Project activities
( Sr no 1 to Sr no 5)
|7||Program Coordination cost
( 20% of Sr no 6)